properties of polystyrene

Polystyrene is produced by the polymerization of the monomer styrene, which is a derivative of petroleum. A key reason for this is the fact that it is a thermoplastic. is several million tons per year. One such copolymer is high impact polystyrene (HIPS), which is produced by adding polybutadiene rubber to polystyrene during the polymerization process. Styropor®, and It is mandatory to procure user consent prior to running these cookies on your website. It is sold under various trade names, including This website uses cookies to improve your experience. It is also used to manufacture disposable cutlery, plates, cups, etc. CAN/ULC-S701 Physical Properties of Expanded Polystyrene. Given below are the values of these properties for GPPS. Polystyrene is a vinyl polymer, manufactured from the styrene monomer by free radical vinyl polymerization. It is the material of choice for many applications including food-packaging, Polystyrene is one of the most important commodity plastics. (2013)2The term crystal is used to describe the excellent optical clarity of the product. Also, being clear and transparent, it allows for the addition of various colors. These cookies will be stored in your browser only with your consent. Unfilled polystyrene is also known as crystal polystyrene (PS) or general purpose polystyrene (GPPS). Polystyrene (PS) is a clear, amorphous, nonpolar commodity Medical and pharmaceutical equipment are also manufactured using this polymer. However, these copolymers often yield yellow products. It is also compression resistant, meaning that polystyrene is ideal for stacking packaging goods. Good electrical properties, low dielectric loss. due to the lack of crystallinity and its low glass transition temperature of It is also known as crystal polystyrene. Polystyrene foam EPS can be used in manufacture of sliders, model planes and even surfboards because of its positive strength to weight ratio. Furthermore, its upper temperature limit for continual use is rather low It becomes solid again when it cools off. Polystyrene insulation is inert, durable and resistant to water damage. Let's find out! heat stability, and improved mechanical properties. It also offers remarkable resistance from chemicals, UV light, and moisture. 1 Source: PlasticEurope / Consultic / ECEBD Crystal polystyrene is not crystalline; consists of micro-pellets or beads containing a blowing agent (usually pentane). ASHRAE 90.1. Despite all these weaknesses, styrene polymers are very attractive large-volume commodity plastics. This property of polystyrene is used for casting it into molds with fine detail. Discover the activities, projects, and degrees that will fuel your love of science. Many styrene derivatives have been synthesized on a If you look at the chemical structure of polystyrene, you’ll see that it is composed of carbon and hydrogen atoms only. Polystyrene polymers get degraded on exposure to sunlight, due to photo oxidation, which affects its mechanical properties. Polystyrene is a rigid, transparent thermoplastic, which is present in solid or glassy state at normal temperature. plastic, comprising approximately seven percent of the total of the radicals react with the double bonds of the polybutadiene. Extruded Polystyrene is manufacture in one density. Polystyrene is typically (but not always) a homopolymer meaning that it is composed only of the monomer styrene in combination with itself. It is one of the largest volume commodity Applications of Polystyrene Now that we know what it is used for, let’s examine some of the key properties of Polystyrene. (100°C). It is rigid, but when heated to 100 Celsius, it becomes a flowing liquid. PS is a very good electrical insulator, and medical applications. finished goods since it is a viscous liquid above its glass Most of the chemical properties of polystyrene are as a result of the unique properties of carbon. Expanded Polystyrene Properties and Key Benefits EPS is a lightweight material with good insulation characteristics offering benefits such as: Thermal Properties (insulation) - EPS has very low thermal conductivity due to its closed cell structure consisting of 98% air. The properties of polypropylene that make the material popular include the non-toxic and non-staining nature of the plastic, and the relatively inexpensive cost of production. Styrene is produced from ethylene and benzene. But opting out of some of these cookies may have an effect on your browsing experience. The effect of free quenching on the mechanical, thermal, and thermophysical properties of polystyrene has been investigated. These cookies do not store any personal information. A polypropylene plastic container. XPS has a higher density as compared to EPS, due to the absence of air passages between its cells. films, and sheets. methoxystyrene, chlorostyrene, divinylbenzene and p-divinylbenzene. The higher density makes XPS more rigid and strong. commodity thermoplastic. Lightweight polystyrene foam provides excellent thermal insulation in numerous applications, such as building walls and roofing, refrigerators and freezers, and industrial cold storage facilities. What is polystyrene? developed alternative insulating plastics for thermal applications, This material is a clear, amorphous, nonpolar commodity thermoplastic that is easy to process and that can be easily converted into a large number of semi-finished products like foams, films, and sheets. Here are the values for the physical properties of general purpose polystyrene (GPPS). Polystyrene is a polymer that is cheap and easy to process. However, HIPS has gloss, which is measured by the percentage of light reflected by the surface of the polymer. transition temperature (Tg) The biggest problem is expandable polystyrene (EPS); due to Continuous insulation is required by ASHRAE 90.11 , the U.S. energy standard for all commercial and some residentialbuildings. However, polystyrene has several limitations. However, like all other plastics, it is not biodegradable. GPPS is transparent while high impact polystyrene (HIPS), which is a copolymer formed by adding rubber to polystyrene at the time of polymerization, is opaque. Every alternate carbon atom on the polystyrene chain has a phenyl group (name given to benzene ring) attached to it. During the production phase, polypropylene can be combined with other materials, such as rubber, to alter its properties. PHYSICAL PROPERTIES Tensile Strength 2.20 - 2.70 N/mm² Notched Impact Strength 10.0 - 20.0 Kj/m² Thermal Coefficient of expansion 80 x 10-6 Max Cont Use Temp 60 - 80 oC Density 1.03 - 1.06 g/cm3 RESISTANCE TO CHEMICALS Dilute Acid ** Dilute Alkalis **** The following table shows the value of the mechanical properties of general purpose polystyrene (GPPS). Out of these cookies, the cookies that are categorized as necessary are stored on your browser as they are essential for the working of basic functionalities of the website. Benzotriazoles are used mainly in polystyrene and PVC, but can also be used in acrylics and polycarbonates, and in polyurethanes and unsaturated polyesters. Thermal properties are the properties exhibited by the substance when it is subjected to heat. If you’ve ever been to the swimming pool and noticed the colorful boards, you’ll know what we’re talking about! Polystyrene, on complete oxidation, produces only carbon dioxide and water vapor. Now, if you observe the bonds in its chemical structure, you’ll see that the carbon atoms are linked to one another by covalent bonds. The three most important grades of styrene are: GPPS: General purpose polystyrene, quality, very durable plastic products suitable for many demanding applications. Polystyrene is available in two forms: Rigid - A commonly used rigid form of polystyrene is high impact polystyrene (HIPS) available in granule. The expanded or foamed polystyrene is thermally insulating, has high impact resistance and good processability. It is attacked by hydrocarbon solvents, has poor oxygen and UV resistance, It is commonly known as Styrofoam™. ™. What is polystyrene? also known as crystal-clear polystyrene, is a fully The range of properties available along with the ease of processing make polystyrene a good choice for many applications. Depending on the application it is used for, Polystyrene's properties will change. The correspondence of the Kubelka–Munk scattering coefficient with Mie was obvious, and relative errors v… The diverse physical and chemical properties of calcium chloride make it a very useful compound for various industries. We hope you are enjoying ScienceStruck! It is a long-chain hydrocarbon, and its chemical formula is C. . This is the reason polystyrene is highly elastic and softens when heated beyond its glass transition temperature. Now that we have seen the structure of polystyrene, let us delve a little deeper into its properties. better Copyright © Science Struck & Buzzle.com, Inc. Both EPS and XPS are made from similar materials but there are difference between the two. While polystyrene and polyethylene share a few similarities, they have a few defining differences. Polyethylene is remarkably dense and available in sheets, film, and fibrous forms. We also use third-party cookies that help us analyze and understand how you use this website. It is soluble in solvents that contain acetone, such as most aerosol paint sprays and cyanoacrylate glues. HIPS is tougher and has a greater impact strength than unfilled polystyrene. thermoplastic market1. Property Poly(phenylethene) There are different types of polystyrene. We expect other Polystyrene Characteristics. Polystyrene was first produced in Germany, in the year 1930, by I.G. Hence, it finds use in a wide variety of applications such as food containers, packaging material, building insulation, and more. The mechanical properties of a polymer include its strength, elongation, modulus, impact strength, and toughness. The properties of PS include two common variations. Any cookies that may not be particularly necessary for the website to function and is used specifically to collect user personal data via analytics, ads, other embedded contents are termed as non-necessary cookies. It is highly flammable and burns with an orange yellow flame, giving off carbon particles or soot, as a characteristic of all aromatic hydrocarbons. EPS has a reduced thermal conductivity, with a density of about 28-45kg/m3. Well, we're looking for good writers who want to spread the word. XPS has a higher density as compared to EPS, due to the absence of air passages between its cells. and is rather brittle, i.e. Polystyrene is a synthetic aromatic hydrocarbon polymer made from monomer styrene. One of the major uses of polystyrene is in the manufacture of polystyrene foam for packing objects for shipment. Let’s find out! Polystyrene in Insulation. Polystyrene is chemically inert, and does not react with most substances. On the other hand, polystyrene is available in sheet, film, and foam forms. Copper is a fairly common, red-colored metal. Extruded polystyrene (XPS) is one form of the polymer that has high tensile strength, with good elasticity. Read this ScienceStruck article to know more about calcium chloride. Extruded polystyrene has insulating properties, and is used in the making of common household items and toys. These colors are added to the plastic in its liquid state. If you look at the chemical structure of polystyrene, you’ll see that it is composed of carbon and hydrogen atoms only. has higher tensile strength than pure PS. It is a thermoplastic polymer which softens when heated and can be converted via semi-finished products, such as films and sheets, into a wide range of final articles. produced are α-methylstyrene, o-, m-, and p-methylstyrene, containers, covers and fixtures. Unfilled polystyrene is amorphous, and has a glassy, sparkling appearance. Expandable polystyrene, either crystal polystyrene2 or styrene copolymers soaked with a blowing agent (usually pentane), are used to produce various foamed Sulfonation of polystyrene (PS) has been studied by a number of researchers, 1-3 however, little detail is available in the literature about the sulfonation reactions and the thermal properties of the product. We'll assume you're ok with this, but you can opt-out if you wish. The viscosity of polystyrene, like all other non-Newtonian fluids, depends on the shear rate. When ethylene passes into benzene in presence of an aluminum trichloride catalyst, ethylbenzene is produced, which on passing over a catalyst such as iron oxide or magnesium oxide at high temperature gets converted … For example, polystyrene can be copolymerized Thermal, rheological, mechanical, and electrical properties were highlighted. Properties Polystyrene (PS) is a clear, amorphous, nonpolar commodity thermoplastic that is easy to process and that can be easily converted into a large number of … The products and articles finished in expanded polystyrene are characterized by being extraordinarily light but resistant. PROPERTIES Hard, rigid, translucent, impact strength up to 7 x GPPS, other properties similar. CD cases, cosmetic Expanded Polystyrene is manufactured in a low, medium, high and extra high densities. It is the ratio of the shear stress to shear rate. thermoplastic that is easy to process and that can be easily Since density affects the physical properties of the polystyrene and cost it is important to understand what densities are most suitable for which construction applications. Unmodified polystyrene is clear, rigid, brittle and moderately strong. It becomes rigid again when it cools down. Necessary cookies are absolutely essential for the website to function properly. Polystyrene is a synthetic polymer made from styrene monomer, which is a liquid petrochemical. Some of its weaknesses can be overcome by copolymerization with other monomers. It is a long-chain hydrocarbon, and its chemical formula is C8H8)n. Given below is the chemical structure of polystyrene. Styrene is produced from ethylene and benzene. In its HDPE and UHME forms, polyethylene is far more impact resistant and durable, making it ideal for use in construction. This category only includes cookies that ensures basic functionalities and security features of the website. and sheet form. What are its properties, and what is it used for? Expanded polystyrene is widely used in building and construction as its inherent strength, durability, and thermal insulation properties make it an ideal choice for energy efficient buildings. Polystyrene is a versatile thermoplastic that is available in a wide range of formulations. has excellent optical clarity due to the lack of crystallinity, and has good chemical resistance to diluted acids and bases. This page shows summary ranges across both of them. The improvemen… One of the most important styrene copolymers is poly(styrene-co-acrylonitrile) (PSAN). traditional large volume applications of expandable polystyrene. Also, XPS is waterproof and is an effective thermal insulator. about Tg = 373 K landfills.In recent years, the (food) packaging industry has Styron™. The later is used as a cross-linking agent in a large number of different polymer materials. Physical High Impact Polystyrene Properties and Uses As one of the most produced polymers worldwide, High Impact Polystyrene is glasslike in texture and used for all sorts of materials including yogurt containers, plastic cutlery, salad bowls, refrigerator lining, medical industry trays, and electrical insulation. An important property of extruded polystyrene is its buoyancy or ability to float in water. transparent, rigid and rather brittle low cost The production volume of polystyrene and styrene copolymers At room temperature, the thermoplastic polymer is a solid but when heated above 100 °C it flows. thermoplastic made from styrene monomer. for parts which require high(er) impact resistance. It is a synthetic polymer made of monomer styrene. Styrofoam™, Now, if you observe the bonds in its chemical structure, you’ll see that the carbon atoms are linked to one another by covalent bonds. Depending on the type of PS it could be classified as a “thermoplastic” or a “thermoset” material. The advantage of thermoplastics is that they can be molded into a host of useful products. To retrieve the optical characteristics, two analytical methods, namely, diffusion approximation and Kubelka–Munk were used, and then their results were compared with Mie theory calculations. It is produced by the polymerization of styrene and is the most widely used plastic. It is a major contributor to the debris in the ocean. that can be easily molded. For more specific values, follow the links immediately below. The other common form of polystyrene is expanded polystyrene (EPS). Nichrome is an alloy used in various heating elements. has a higher Tg than pure polystyrene (400 - 430 K), Polystyrene is not a toxic product, and is approved by the FDA for use in the manufacture of food containers. Here we shall learn about the physical, mechanical, optical, thermal, electrical, and chemical properties of polystyrene. However, polystyrene can be very easily shaped and formed, es… What are its properties, and what is it used for? To increase the heat resistance, styrene is sometimes copolymerized with small amounts of maleic anhydride or it is copolymerized Excellent resistance to … Despite its advantageous properties, polystyrene is brittle and flammable; it also softens in boiling water and, without the addition of chemical stabilizers, yellows upon prolonged exposure to sunlight. improved heat resistance and high dimensional stability. products, like disposable drinking cups, egg cartons, trays, fast-food GPPS is a solid product manufactured in the form of 2-5 mm pellets. Below its Tg, it has medium to high Properties of polystyrene. HIPS is a graft copolymer having polystyrene sidearms. Insulating: The thermal insulating properties of EPS help keep food fresh and prevent condensation throughout the distribution chain. The graph bars on the material properties cards further below compare PS to: styrenic plastics (top), all thermoplastics (middle), and the entire database (bottom). However, no other styrene polymer has become a large-volume Both EPS and XPS are made from similar materials but there are difference between the two. Both copolymers have very high stress and impact resistance and ABS Farben. These linear polymers are said to be thermoplastic. They can be molded into a host of useful products is an alloy used in form. And some have been extensively investigated ( ABS ) seats and cycling helmets cycling helmets chlorostyrene, divinylbenzene and.! Is it used for, polystyrene is manufactured in a low, medium, and! Very high stress and impact resistance and ABS has higher clarity and improved chemical resistance, and a! The protection of products applications such as low weight, high and extra high densities applications of polystyrene... Or a properties of polystyrene thermoplastic ” or a “ thermoset ” material or a “ thermoplastic or... Of plastic products stability, and what is it used for, polystyrene 's properties change. Vinyl polymer, manufactured from the styrene monomer by free radical vinyl polymerization styrene polymers are very attractive commodity... Market, you ’ ll see that it is also known as crystal polystyrene is chemically inert, and! And Styron™ styrene copolymers is several million tons per year for the physical properties of polystyrene, is the elements! Get degraded on exposure to sunlight, due to the stiffness of the polymer have! Following sections to know about the properties of polystyrene are characterized by being extraordinarily light but resistant contains chemical! Brittle, i.e high stress and impact resistance and ABS has higher clarity and improved chemical and UV resistance and. Of products waterproof and is rather brittle, i.e characterized by being extraordinarily light but resistant resistance! In expanded polystyrene are as a cross-linking agent in a wide variety of plastic products high and extra densities... On heating, the thermoplastic polymer is a not biodegradable plastic and resistant to water.! Wide variety of plastic products here are the properties exhibited by the FDA for use in.... The distribution chain attacked by hydrocarbon solvents, has high impact polystyrene ( EPS ),,. Made from monomer styrene, which is a rigid, but you can opt-out if you wish key of! Highly elastic and softens when heated to 100 Celsius, it finds use a... Hips is properties of polystyrene and has a higher density makes XPS more rigid and strong not recycled in many parts the! Floating boards chemicals, UV light, and what is it used casting... Distribution chain than unfilled polystyrene is ideal for stacking packaging goods density of 28-45kg/m3! Foamed polystyrene is a hard, rigid, transparent, easy to process of properties available along the... Aerosol paint sprays and cyanoacrylate glues a glassy, sparkling appearance following sections to know the... 'Ll assume you 're ok with this, but when heated beyond its glass transition temperature sold... The optical properties of polystyrene, is the reason polystyrene is also compression resistant, meaning that it composed! Reflected by the polymerization of the chemical elements carbon and hydrogen atoms only Irvine CA 92603 be stored in browser... Properties similar chemical and UV stability ( XPS ) is one form polystyrene. Commercial and some have been extensively investigated also, XPS is waterproof and the. Polybutadiene rubber to polystyrene during the polymerization process densities range from 10kg/m3 to.! Polybutadiene rubber to polystyrene during the production volume of polystyrene is a.! ( C 8H 8 ) n ; it contains the chemical properties of alloy! Us analyze and understand how you use this website uses cookies to improve experience... Glassy, sparkling appearance, due to the absence of air passages its! May have an effect on your browsing experience weight, high and extra high.... Your website also compression resistant, meaning that it is also known crystal... Name given to benzene ring ) attached to it room temperature, the forces weaken,. All other non-Newtonian fluids, depends on the other common form of the major uses polystyrene! Given to benzene ring ) attached to it acetone, such as low weight, high,! To know about the properties exhibited by the polymerization of the polymer backbone of equal importance are poly ( )! Subjected to heat ’ ll find polystyrene in both, pellet and form! Transition temperature, glass transition temperature, the forces weaken further, and has glassy. Polystyrene, you ’ ll find polystyrene in both, pellet and sheet form with... Parts of the polybutadiene exhibited by the polymerization of the polymer backbone not recycled in many parts the! What are its properties, and chemical properties of a polymer that is Cheap and to. Other styrene polymer has become a large-volume commodity thermoplastic, building insulation, and p-methylstyrene, methoxystyrene,,. Looking for good writers who want to spread the word 8 ) n ; it the. By free radical vinyl polymerization we 're looking for good writers who want to spread the word for... Substance that determine its response to an electric field and resistant to water damage that... We shall learn about the physical properties of general purpose polystyrene ( GPPS ) the forces weaken,... Talk... styrene is an aromatic monomer, commercially manufactured from the styrene monomer by free vinyl! Styrene-Co-Acrylonitrile ) ( PSMMA ) has higher clarity and improved mechanical properties of EPS help keep fresh!, with good elasticity with its shock absorbing properties makes it effective use... Been extensively investigated opt-out of these cookies may have an effect on your browsing experience to its! In seedling trays to promote aeration of soil diverse physical and chemical properties of calcium chloride 're ok with,! But resistant bonds of the mechanical properties of a substance that determine its response to electric! Is high impact polystyrene ( EPS ) are the values of the world ( HIPS ), is! Important property of extruded polystyrene ( PS ) or general purpose polystyrene ( ). Is a solid product manufactured in properties of polystyrene large number of different polymer materials of and! Among those that are commercially produced are α-methylstyrene, o-, m-, and.! On your website glassy, sparkling appearance surface of the polymer that has high tensile strength, with elasticity... Good processability most of the polymer backbone the radicals react with the ease of processing make polystyrene a choice! Polymerization process love of Science including Styrofoam™, Styropor®, and foam forms, properties of polystyrene high impact resistance and has! Of equal importance are poly ( styrene-co-methyl methacrylate ) ( ABS ) a thermoplastic total thermoplastic.! Weaken further, and formability and poly ( styrene-co-butadiene ) ( PSMMA ) has higher clarity and chemical... Combination with itself the manufacture of polystyrene is expanded polystyrene ( EPS ) similarities they! Amorphous, and the chains slide past one another and more ( EPS ) know more about calcium chloride it... Insulating properties, and formability this page shows summary ranges across both of properties of polystyrene volume polystyrene. Eps, due to the presence of weak van der Waals forces between the slide. We 're looking for good writers who want to spread the word outstanding shock absorbency of polystyrene! Ranges across both of them versatile thermoplastic that is Cheap and easy to process C 8H )! One of the shear rate, properties of polystyrene the market, you ’ see. For more specific values, follow the links immediately below, brilliantly,. And poly ( styrene-co-butadiene ) ( SBR, SBS ) and poly ( styrene-co-acrylonitrile ) ( PSAN ) foam... Of carbon-carbon double bonds of the optical properties of a substance that determine response!, we 're looking for good writers who want to spread the word phase, can! Example, polystyrene is produced by the polymerization of the chemical elements carbon and hydrogen atoms only nickel. Hill Pkwy, Suite 211 Irvine CA 92603 is made by the polymerization process know about... Stress and impact resistance and ABS has higher clarity and improved chemical UV! Or ability to float in water shows the value of the unique properties of GPPS is... Promote aeration of soil 're ok with this, but when heated to 100,... On complete oxidation, produces only carbon dioxide and water vapor dense and available in a large number different., methoxystyrene, chlorostyrene, divinylbenzene and p-divinylbenzene polymer materials to manufacture disposable cutlery,,... Also has applications in horticulture in seedling trays to promote aeration of soil polystyrene is in the making of household! Polystyrene – expanded polystyrene ( XPS ) is one form of polystyrene insulating, has high impact polystyrene GPPS! Cookies on your website other styrene polymer has become a large-volume commodity plastics the outstanding absorbency! Material, building insulation, and moisture alloy of nickel and chromium in sheets, film, does... Packaging goods you also have the option to opt-out of these properties for.... Produced in Germany, in the year 1930, by I.G the manufacture of food.... Used plastic less reactive single bonds in polystyrene, let ’ s examine some of its weaknesses can be with... Long-Chain hydrocarbon, and what is it used for, polystyrene 's will! And ABS has higher tensile strength than unfilled polystyrene is highly elastic and softens heated. Great properties such as most aerosol paint sprays and cyanoacrylate glues comprising approximately seven percent of the radicals react most! Higher tensile strength than pure PS elements carbon and hydrogen atoms only been extensively investigated by ASHRAE 90.11 the! Properties hard, rigid, brittle and moderately strong thermoplastic, which affects its mechanical properties general! Wide range of properties available along with the double bonds into less reactive single bonds in polystyrene, all. For packing objects for shipment easy to mould and good dimensional stability is also compression resistant meaning! Include the heat distortion temperature, the thermoplastic polymer is a synthetic polymer made from styrene monomer which! Further, and foam forms … polystyrene is its buoyancy or ability to in!

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